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MANUFACTURING
PROCESSES

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Heading Or Upset Forging

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Heading or upset forging is a process by which stock, (typically cylindrical), is upset at its end in order to increase the cross section of the material in this area. This metal forging process may be hot, but is often a cold working operation. Cold working will take advantage of the strengthening of the material in the region worked. Unlike upsetting, as discussed under open die forging, upset forging can employ closed die. For typical industrial applications, heading, is mostly performed horizontally, as shown in the diagrams. Heading is a manufacturing process used extensively in the production of fasteners that include nails, screws, nuts and bolts. Due to the enormous quantity of fasteners produced in modern manufacturing industry, heading is the most commonly used metal forging process in the world today. The impression in the head may be forged in either the punch, the die, or both.

Figure:183
Heading Operation For The Production Of A Nail Impression In The Punch


Figure:184
Heading Operation To Forge A Bolt Impression In The Die


Figure:185
Heading Operation For The Production Of A Different Type Bolt Impression 
In The Die And Punch

In order to ensure proper metal flow during the forging of the head, and thus avoid bending or buckling of the stock material during compression, the length of stock to be forged should be less than three times the diameter of the stock.

Figure:186
Length Width Ratio For Upset Forging

Upset forging, or heading, is a well developed metal working process in manufacturing industry. Stock is fed through the die, forged, and then cut to length. Some heading operations can produce up to 300 parts per minute. Most fasteners will be subject to a further thread rolling operation to form threads. Thread rolling also has an extremely high productivity rate.
Figure:187
Heading Of A Fastener


Figure:188
Once Head Is Forged Wire Stock Is Fed Through And Cut To The 
Right Length


Figure:189
Stock Is Now Ready For The Next Forging Stroke













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